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[其他供参考的论文] 贵妇画像中的理想文化研究,求修改

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D9CE9 发表于 2015-4-29 16:00:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
An Analysis of Henry James’sIdeal Culture in the Portrait of a Lady
Chapter1 Introduction
ThePortrait of a Lady is the novel of Henry James. It isfirst published as a serial in TheAtlantic Monthly and Macmillan’s Magazine and then as a book in 1881. It isone of James’s most popular long novels, and is also regarded by critics as oneof his finest.
ThePortrait of a Lady is mainly about a spirited youngAmerican woman, Isabel Archer. She is taken to Europeby her rich aunt after her parents’ death. There, she rejects two preeminentyoung men, Lord Warburton and Gold Wood, who love her very much, and getsacquainted with Merle. She inherits a large amount of money from her unclebecause of her elder male cousin, Ralph, and then travels to Italy. While she enjoys thehistorical remains of Florenceand Roman, she steps into the snare by Mrs. Merle gradually. Merle introducesher to an American artist, Gilbert Osmond, who is Merle’s lover. Isabel fallsin love with him for his pacific and literacy look, and also has tenderaffection for his little daughter, who is Merle and Osmond’s illegitimatedaughter. Then she is married to Osmond in spite of all the objections of herrelatives and friends. After married, she gradually finds that she is cheatedby Merle and Osmond. But she conceals all these to others and still pretends tobe happy. After that she goes to England to see her elder malecousin, Ralph, who is critically ill, ignoring the objection of her husband. Isabel goes back to Romeunexpectedly after Ralph dead.
This novel is set mostly in Europe, mostly England and Italy, like many of James’s novels.It reflects James’s interest in the differences between the New World and the Old, and is regarded as the masterpiece of James’searly period. The novel shows a huge view of trans-Atlantic life, and hasfar-reaching influence of freedom and responsibility. Isabel’s love tragedycontains complex and profound meaning under the light sadness. It is differentfrom the traditional love tragedy which is formed because of the rejection ofothers. It is a tragedy formed all because the protagonist chooses her fateherself. Isabel is an American who is educated by the spirit of Emerson, whichadvocates believing oneself and respecting oneself. She says, “I try to judgethings all myself; I think it is more glory than no my judgment even it iswrong.” Her tragedy comes from her own judgment. All the external forces which opposethis marriage from her aunt, elder male cousin and friends are all proved to betrue at last, and only her judgment is wrong. And the most lamentable is thather fault not because of her stupid but she is too clever and often think alot. She rejects the suitors who are rich and posted because she doesn’t wantto accept the ready-made and easy life, and she like offering, so her idealmarriage partner is Osmond. She chooses her fate on her own, but is mockedrelentlessly. She loses freedom from her pursue of it and ruins independencefrom her require of it. All these have something to do with her weakness. Sheis too naïve and too self-confident and has too many romantic illusion. Butthese are just her lovely aspect, or she can’t be a fascinating girl. Hertragedy is a character tragedy, and it is nearly inevitable. That is why Henry James wants to share his ideal culture in the Portrait of a Lady.
Chapter 2 Isabel Archer’s View of Freedom in the Portrait of a Lady
2.1 Freedom of Choice
In the novel, Isabel Archer has strong and uncompromisingconvictions as a woman. The first glimpse of Isabel shows that she is veryindependent. This early description is about she insists on having not onlyfreedom of choice, but also freedom of consciousness. She should have space andtime for her intellectual growth. In late nineteenth century, Isabel cherishesthat kind of individual freedom which she believes to be the essence of humanemotion. Her actions reveal her keeping with the views of the changing timesregarding freedom. The Touchett became ill and, according to the request of hisson, he leaves much of his estate to Isabel. With the large legacy, Isabel choosetravel the continent and meets an american expatriate, Gilbert Osmond. AlthoughIsabel had previously rejected both Warburton and Goodwood, she accepts Osmond’sproposal. She is unaware of this marriage has been actively promoted by anotherAmerican expatriate, whom Isabel had met at the Touchetts’ estate.
Isabel and Osmond settle in Rome, but their marriage rapidly has adifference due to Osmond’s overwhelming egotism and his lack of affection forhis wife. Isabel has interest in Pansy, Osmond’s presumed daughter in his firstmarriage, and wants to grant her wish to marryEdward Rosier, a young art collector. The snobbish Osmond would rather that Pansy accept the proposal ofWarburton, who had previously proposed to Isabel. Isabel suspects, however,that Warburton may just be feigning interest in Pansy to get close to Isabelagain.
The conflict creates even more straight in this unhappymarriage. Isabel learns that Ralph is dying at his estate in England and prepares to visit himin his final hours, but Osmond selfishly opposes her idea. Meanwhile, Isabelknows something from her sister-in-law that Pansy is actually the daughter ofMadame Merle, who had an affair with Osmond for several years.
Isabel pays a final visit to Pansy, who desperately begs herto return some day, something Isabel reluctantly promises. She then leaves,without telling her spiteful husband, to comfort the dying Ralph in England,where she remains until his death. Goodwood encounters her at Ralph’s estateand begs her to leave Osmond and come away with him. He passionately embracesand kisses her, but Isabel flees. Goodwood seeks her out the next day, but istold she has set off again for Rome.The ending is ambiguous, and the reader is left to imagine whether Isabelreturned to Osmond to suffer out her marriage in noble tragedy (perhaps forPansy’s sake) or whether she is going to rescue Pansy and leave Osmond.
2.1.1Isabel’s Choice to Refuse Her Suitors
The scene quickly switched to the New York, the hometown of Isabel. New York is the onlyplace in the novel that is the background. It is because that Isabel became atypical American girl - naive, independent, rich imagination and curiosity. Andbecause of these characteristics, so that Isabel left America and then came to Europeand wants to know the differences between European and American culture. Afterliving in England for aperiod of time, Isabel came to Paris,where Mrs. Duchet brought Isabel there for the American social circle. In thebackground, James also mentioned that a picture of American character portraitof Europe to the readers. Subsequently, Isabelspent several weeks in the coast of Italy.  Then, Isabel met Osmond, and fell into theOsmond’s trap, and eventually settled in Rome.James sets the background in Italy,describes the deeply attracted European culture and history of Isabel. Afterall, compared with Europe, this is also the important reason of many Americansliving in Europe, the conflict of two kinds ofmorality and social customs conflict between old and new at the same time isalso the theme to reflect the two continental origins. Different setting,affects different behaviors of different characters. Specifically, the locationof the conversion, James draws the novel moral map. In this map, Englandis the major character, Mr. Duchet and his son Ralph’s home in the novel, whileMr. Duchet left a huge legacy to her, so that she can be free to choose. Whilein Italy,Isabel’s power was weakened, even in her own home, she doesn’t have power andfreedom. Isabel finally returned to Rome,and Merle lady returned to the American. This arrangement also revealed Jamesin the international theme in the hope that by cultural conflict to the goodwill of cultural fusion. Isabel Archer admires highly of European high culturebecause she takes it for granted that she could become culturally mature as shehopes. She is concerned about her personality in this novel. She always plansher development, observes her progress. This understanding of her may shedlight on her rejection of Goodwood. She once tells Ralph that she hopes to seethe people and the world, which shows that she iseager to become mentally mature
2.1.2Isabel’s Choice to Marry Gilbert Osmond
The portrait ofa lady is actually the portrait of American girl Isabel. As atypical American cultural characteristics,itreflects the strengths and weaknesses of all Americans. James wanted to showthe reader the first expression of Isabel. When Ralph learned that how Isabelwas special. At this time, Isabel adhere to stand on her own pursuit of freedomof belief, is truly to life under James’s pen. But Isabel’s Americanpersonality decides her marriage tragedy. She refused the successful Americanindustrialist and inventor Goode Wood. Because she was afraid that she mightlose her freedom. She also rejected the British Lord Warburton, because she wantedto take her ease to explore life,andLord Warburton’s peerage may make her freedom limited. But ultimately she choseOsmond because she mistakenly believed that man won’t give her any constraintsand restrictions, so that she is free. Thishas become a fatal shortcoming, that she refused the advice of his friends,finally fell into the trap. Of course, in addition to American’s type of lovefor freedom and independence, Isabel is still an innocent woman, only to fallinto the European American trap. In addition, as the concentrated expression ofAmerica traditional culture,Isabel has the advantages of Americatype -- the sense of responsibility of height and moral consciousness. This isHenry James cherished American culture embodies the value. So after knowing thetruth, Isabel did not make a selfish decision, she felt a strong sense ofresponsibility for their own behavior finally bravely returned to Rome, to assume theirresponsibilities.
2.1.3Isabel’s Final Choice to Return to Her Loveless Marriage
For James, real experience is essentially ethical. Fromthis asbect we can see that seems not sodifficult to explain. At the end of the novel we can see it is a criticismhistory. Isabel returned to Englandto visit Ralph’s dying cousin. Isabel lives in England for a period of time, but shehas the issue of her marriage and fails to meet Mr. Osborne. At this point, theprevious suitors of Isabel, Mr. Goodwood after knowing her misfortune, alsocame to Britain, he persuaded Isabel leave Austin, and then to the UnitedStates. But, surprisingly, she did not return to the United States, but decided to return to Rome. The portrait of a lady questioned aboutmarriage, criticism of the modern social marriage into a deal, but the noveljust stressed the social ethical values in the form of marriage. She believesthat she has brought the family power. But after marriage, she realized thather husband wants her to give in to his wishes, this is her absolutely can’tdo. She understood her own marriage has become atrap, this is she began a sign of maturity. And then Isabel in the middle ofthe night realized that he is a member of the social organization is anindividual, she must abide by the social customs, traditions and she must facea painful experience.  
The evidence of Isabel completely awakening is that, inher second time came to the garden, she told her aunt and cousin that sheadmits the fact that her marriage is a tragedy. She has much experience aboutpain, mature, and won the women’s self-consciousness. So Isabel told her aunt.She sees Ralph, she revealed the secrets of Ralph that made her rich, yet Ralphsaid that money ruined Isabel. She told Ralph her unhappy marriage. You wishthat you were punished, in the process of Isabel to pursue their happiness, hertragic fate is a reflection.
In the end, Isabel awakenedfrom her marriage. She knows that she is nolonger pure, but remain of his own virtues. She knows more about the real valueand the essence of the world. She has already formed in the course of marriagewomen self-awareness.
2.2 Freedom ofConsciousness
As he thought, if freedom must be inthe form of society to achieve a true expression, sopeople have feelings and happiness also must be in the form of society torealize.  
WhenRalph was seriously ill, Isabel also arrived in Britain. Isabel enjoys"freedom" life for so many years, and this has caused her aunt a kindof spiritual and emotional completely dried up. Isabel at this point has beenable to understand this without caring "free" finally caused is astate of isolation and nothing - this is she can’t choose the solution.  
Although,Austin betrayedIsabel’s ideal. Her freedom of choice can’t give her free life. Her dream offreedom shattered, but Isabel chooses to go back to Rome. She refused Good wood, back to Austin. It’s notcontradiction and her pursuit of freedom, but loyal to the ideal, stick to theperformance.
Thearrangement of James plot shows the duality marriage: on the one hand thisunfortunate marriage to a naive young girl is a noble motive; but on the otherhand, as a form of social and ethical life, marriage, it contains specificresponsibility for Isabel and it’s out of their embrace of abstract emptypersonal freedom provides the necessary conditions. And return to Rome and take care of hermeans that Isabel herself has a consciousness of give up? This problem iscritical to understand the novel, and we have seen in the novel, he skirted theplot and the plot of the Isabel’s marriage has been very closely together, andthe contact between the base is not entirely without Isabel altruism, but sheinsists self-awareness and individual freedom.
Backto Rome, shereturned to her side of the moral choice; On the contrary, it is Isabel for her individual freedom and the activeexpression of self-consciousness.  
Thispaper argues that a sign of maturity is her previous pure individualism in theresponsibility, so as to realize the perfect of the individuality and theawakening of female self-consciousness. Therefore, in the end, she chose toaccept the test of life bravely, undertake their own responsibility. This isnot a passive submission to the life of a concession, but a beyond of herself,beyond the instinct desire, is also a choice of the rational and wisdom.Therefore, Isabel has fully awakened.
Strictlyspeaking, women self consciousness should be a comprehensive understanding ofself, it includes that women know about their thoughts, feelings, psychologicalstate, self-worth, behavior and so on all aspects of consciousness andthinking. Aware of their thoughts and feelings are all the content and form ofexpression is to understand oneself, to grasp the important concept of theself. For their psychological state of consciousness, feelings, control,adjustment, is a female self-consciousness, a sign of maturity. The psychologyof different women shows different state of mind and way of life. Consciousnessand acknowledge your self-worth, of self-worth thinking is an importantconstitute of women self-awareness. Established the self-awareness of womenshould fully understand and cherish their own value.  
Inorder to achieve a pursuit of a perfect life, the first to do is to have ourown ideas and true emotions. But it in a long time in the past, women lostself, blind mechanically to live for others, the result is being looked downupon. Others said, a woman is incomplete, a woman is without thought. Thesewords, means that in the past a period of time a woman’s weight and location,but also expose the weaknesses of women themselves. Women can’t as a whole personwith independent thinking, independent existence, only to rely on men, thus itwas causing a woman’s life becomes a tragedy. With the development of scienceand technology and the progress of the society, people began a new life. Somewomen woke up and began to think about their own life, and to maximize theunderstanding their own thoughts and feelings, to control their psychologicalstate, look at their values.  
Inthis paper, we study mainly use the feminist theory. Feminist theory from therise of the feminist movement, aims to test the female’s life experience andsocial roles for women to understand the fact that gender inequality. It hasgrown into a variety of disciplines theory and researches other socialconstruction problems.  
Feminismis a series of movement, to define, establish and maintain the equal political,economic and social rights of women. In addition, the feminists seek to buildequality of opportunity in education and employment. Feminists are based on thefeminist beliefs and behavior.
Inthe novel, the lies always will be exposed; Osmond can’t hide his hypocrisy,sick and ugly nature. After marriage, according to Isabel’s rediscover aboutOsmond , and at the moment she finally find he and Mrs. Merle’s real face,under the extreme state of mind, she sits in the dark room and reflects onherself and realizes that she made the wrong choice. But the outcome is thatIsabel rejects Gold Wood’s proposal of marriage again and chooses to return toOsmond. It is really a surprising and puzzled ending of his novel. Many criticshave published different opinions. Although Isabel has lofty aspirations, shecan’t avoid all kinds of possibilities and dangers in the road of life.
Chapter 3. Idealism in thePortrait of a Lady
3.1 Isabel’s Pursuit of Idealism
Inthe portrait of a lady, although GoldWood and Lord Warburton can give her a happy and prosperous life, she stillrefused them instead of accepting Osmond. Gold Wood is a promising young American. He is a famous inventor of thecotton gin in the United  States. He can be regarded as an industrialgiant in American society. He is rude, stubborn but marched forward bravely,and is extremely infatuated to Isabel. In the novel, every time he proposedwith his heart and soul of passion and sincerity, but what it changed is sadand disappointed. And Isabel rejects his proposal of marriage, because shefeels Gold Wood cannot bring her real freedom. She does not deny that Gold Woodis an excellent young man, and has a successful career, she feels he was toopowerful and fearless and with a attracting people’s temperament at any time.It will be an obstacle for her to pursuit for the dream of freedom. Even GoldWood can win in American society and have a certain position, which makes Isabelconfirm her rejection. Because in her opinion, Gold Wood is the representativeof the U.S.industrial bourgeoisie upper social class, rather than his own. This happenedto be opposite with Isabel’s determination of the existence of the self. So, inorder to remove the obstacles on the road of freedom, Isabel has refused GoldWood’s proposal. Even at the end of the novel, she is in the pain of marriagetragedy, she still choose to refuse his proposal. At the beginning, Isabel is abrave young American girl, she feels curious about everything and looking forfreedom, but after a series of things happened, she realized that she shouldhave responsibility for his family.
LordWarburton which is Isabel’s another suitor, is full of experiences and is atypical English gentleman. He has noble ancestry and rich. However, he hasfailed to combine with Isabel.
3.2 Henry James’s Re-recognition of Idealism
Atthe same time, Isabel is well aware of that there is not a bossy but persuasiveinstinct in her deep heart, which tells her, in fact, she has her own systemand orbit, she cannot live like Lord Warburton’s way, and their combination canonly lead to misfortune. So, Isabel eventually rejected his marriage proposal,which purpose in order to continue to pursue her dream of freedom andexperience the life really.
That’sone of the most fundamental reasons that she chooses to marry to Osmond. InIsabel’s initial impression, Osmond’s personality and his life is somysterious, which let her confused that why a polite, elegant man can spent allday with great concentration in the study of art appreciation, he can beindifferent to a social secular and also doesn’t care about his poverty andloneliness. However, this is just the noble life that Isabel pursuit of which iselegant and free. Osmond has no property, no title, no honor, no house, nostatus, no fame and no anything glorious. But it makes Isabel wrongly thinkthat he is a real individual. He does not rely on and not be subjected to anysocial system, so he does not reflect any social class. If combined with himthat she can have enough space to continue to enjoy the pleasure as a freeperson, also can truly experience life.
The novel acts on the pleasure principle, is looking foroutlet urgently, always pursuit for meeting. Everything is unconscious. Isabelmakes decisions according to her wishes and pursuits freedom blindly. Her coldand heartless to Gold Wood make she is scolded by her best friend and it isalmost destroyed their years of precious friendship. When she rejects LordWarburton, she was persuaded by Mrs. Touchett and Ralph many times, alsoadvised to think twice, but it is useless and let them regret to miss a goodmarriage. She gets the consistent of all opposition by accepting Osmond. Butshe does not interfere by others, she makes a choice freely.
Chapter 4. Henry James’s Pursuit of Harmony in the Portrait of a Lady
4.1 Harmony Between Man and Man
Thenovel the portrait of a lady isrecognized as one of the masterpieces of Henry James, Henry James expand theinternational theme and develop it to the top. The difference with the sametime writers is residing in foreign countries with a satirical depiction of thewestern culture comparison, the attitude of his about culture is tolerant. In hislife of creation, takes the text explain the solution he understood andrespected European and American cultural conflict that realize his pursuit ofideal culture. This is why his work is better than other writers.
Theexpression of the novel is that the Americans pursue pragmatism, and Europeansare paying attention to the form and etiquette. The Americans appear to benatural, Europeans pursue the perfect form. So, American behavior is sincere,Europeans give people a more elegant feeling. Due to the difference of thewestern culture, the cultural life in Americans and Europeans are not easilyunderstood and accept each other’s behavior. Henry James in the novel isportrayed as simple, weak and small, while the Europeans are moresophisticated, smooth type. However, James believes that USA culture and European culture has itsadvantages and disadvantages, and simply American culture or culture of Europe is not his pursuit of ideal culture.
HenryJames’s novel is characterized by European and American cultural theme, derivedfrom his recognition of its cultural identity. With the passage of time, HenryJames in European culture attitudes are slowly changing, in his early period,American denounces the lacking culture, longing for the alien culture, throughthe negative criticism to determine the unique identity of their own; in middleage, it began to reflect, experience, influence the acceptance of his nativeculture; in his old age has gradually become a cosmopolitan, and activelyexplore the cultural fusion. James in the pursuit of self identity at the sametime, trying to take the novel text as his ideal of cultural fusion, also it’shis ideal culture. This also shows the implementation of cultural integrationdifficulties.
Inthe numerous of his literary works, it’s popular with critics attention is theconflict between the American "innocence" and European"sophistication" as the background of the international themenovels.  Highlighted these works is thecollision of culture between our two continents. It’s a process, James and hiswork solve culture conflict.
4.2 Harmony Between Man and Society
Onthe basis of their achievement, this paper aims to adopt some ideas ofintercultural communication, discusses James’s international novels in the viewof culture, specifically the ideal culture, from the angle of the novel anupdate of the hero. In the novel, Isabel peruse in its unique way aboutindependence and freedom.
AsJames’s ideal culture of potential implementation, through her marriage tochoose their own embodies is the connotation of James’s ideal culture. James isin the realization of ideal culture dominates the fate of Isabel, thecrossroads in life, adhere to their own choices, and not by others to choose.Isabel is such a stick to make James’s ideal culture potential implementation.
InJames’s novels, there is a sharp contrast between the European elegant cultureand Americamaterialism culture. Europe has a longhistory, rich cultural atmosphere, and the formation of a stable cultural circle.The elegant cultural circle of the European elite gathered, in the fields ofliterature, music, sculpture, architecture and other arts attainments deep, toplay the leading role, to attract people around the world attention andadmiration. Europeans always look gorgeous, talent superior advantages andmanners.  In contrast, Americans believein materialistic culture. At the same time, the pursuit of material, thepursuit of practical and the pursuit of unlimited on individual wealth become asocial atmosphere, wealth become the success of one important standard.  American short history, lack of long-termculture of precipitation, this also makes the materialistic culture performanceis more prominent.
Jameshas the American character and cultural background , and has deep experience tothe European profound cultural accumulation, enabling him to shape thecharacters in the novels by the various problems that may be encountered in theEuropean Americans living in front of the reader, and through a series ofAmerican figure and European, it forms the international background settings,Henry James in the portrait of a ladyclearly explain the international theme - simple kind of life is full ofenthusiasm, optimism and self-confidence of Americans, with the Europeanancient civilized yearning and longing into a society, where they encounter asetback,  American  experiences the conflict and contradiction between the old and new values, moralstandards and etiquette, fashion, this conflict in essence is caused by thedifference of two western culture,  makehuman society at a higher level on the harmonious coexistence of Henry James.
Chapter 5. Conclusion
Manyfamous critics, such as, William Howells, Turgenev and Eliot think Henry Jamesis absolutely a great American novelist. "The portrait of a lady" isthe longest novel written by Henry James, also won the readers and critics ofwarmly welcome. Isabel returned to Romeis a hot research topic in novels. As Laurence Hollander says, "theportrait of a lady" did not provide a complete solution, but end with anirreconcilable crisis. However, this crisis is not the future of pansy.However, we should also not forget, the decision of Isabel does not mean togive up, self consciousness on the contrary, it points to the social life andfor the redemption of individual freedom ethical.  Their own future is full of curiosity andimagination, so she insisted through his personal experience to gain a deepunderstanding of life world. She is in the complex in the European socialexperience, she encountered in the life of the positive, negative and guidepeople to make her grow, and began to comprehensively reflect the life, societyand their own responsibility, make her conceit from a blind worship of individualfreedom of innocent and, gradually grow into a mature woman with the ideal ofindividualism. The thesis mainly uses the female theory on Isabel’sconsciousness of self analysis, hope that through analysis and synthesis to geta female image of integrity and new conclusion. We can see "the portraitof a lady" outline a picture with female self consciousness out of the newpicture of traditional women.
The female image is affected by the socialtradition and reality at that time, and writer Henry James’s unique personalexperience and creative consciousness is closely related, there is more closelylinked with consciousness and moral factors and women themselves. It is thefactors that make the interpretation of this picture are full of ambiguity,everyone can get a different picture from that. Based on the different periodsof Isabel, marriage, freedom, responsibility and self understanding andanalysis of the behavior, draws the conclusion: as an independent individual,she realized why she alive; as a mature women, she knew how to live. Life isendless to explore. Women and marriage is an eternal theme of human society.Henry James made a deep description in "the portrait of a lady”, revealsthe social problems of women facing in nineteenth Century for us, this providesa valuable reference for us to study the female literature.
James’sfirst idea of The Portrait of a Lady was simple: a young American womanconfronting her destiny. Only he begins to form a plot to bring out thecharacter of his figure. This was the uncompromising story of the free-spiritedIsabel losing her freedom. It is a rather existentialist novel as Isabel isvery committed to living with the consequences of her choice with integrity butalso a sort of stubbornness. This moneyed world appears charming and leisurelybut proves to be plagued with treachery, deceit, and suffering.
HenryJames is seemed as a great psychological and realistic writer. In the previouschapters, Isabel Archer’s view of freedom has been illustrated. She wants to havefreedom of choice and consciousness. Therefore, Isabel is attracted by thestability and direction his life to offer her. That is why James want to tellus what we hope is that the development of relations between any countriesshould be conducive to maintaining world peace and promoting commondevelopment.

376658938 发表于 2015-5-6 16:25:58 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
Is this your graduation thesis?
 楼主| D9CE9 发表于 2015-5-13 15:40:08 | 显示全部楼层
376658938 发表于 2015-5-6 16:25
Is this your graduation thesis?

yes,can u modify it?thanks
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