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[有关批改网的论文] The Reflection of Chillingworth’s Destiny in The Scarlet Letter

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1332921218 发表于 2015-11-19 16:52:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
The Reflection of Chillingworth’s Destiny in The Scarlet Letter
Abstract:
Hawthorne created many classic characters in The Scarlet Letter, Chillingworth isone of them. Chillingworth is a villain in Hawthorne's novel, so most of thecritics criticism. The through Jung's psychoanalysis and Adler's inferioritydriving force, Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs comprehensive analysisChillingworth's tragic fate and the causes, the fate of such and byChillingworth by an honest, fair, for the heart of no mercy, crazy deviltormenting his enemy process is thinking. Based on the comprehensive analysisof Chillingworth's tragic destiny, and points out that it is a tragedy not onlywith human dignity trampled, having close contact with the lack of love, andthe writer's religious beliefs and his thought limitation is closely related.Chillingworth is a Puritan, the traditional ideas of Puritanism seriouslyaffected the thoughts and life of his, and his own, creating a such a selfish,arrogant and crazy poor people. This paper mainly focuses on Chillingworth thatthe fate of the characters are analyzed, and the influence of his tragic fateof future generations.
Keywords: The Scarlet Letter; Puritanism; Chillingworth;Destiny; Reflection


《红字》中齐林沃斯命运的反思
摘 要:
在《红字》中霍桑塑造了许多经典的人物,齐林沃斯就是其中一个。齐林沃斯是霍桑小说《红字》中一个反面人物,因而倍受评论家们的批判。本文通过荣格的心理分析以及阿德勒的自卑驱动力、马斯洛的需要层次理论全面分析齐林沃斯悲惨命运以及造成这样命运的成因,并通过齐林沃斯由一个先前诚实,公正的人,变为毫无怜悯之心,疯狂折磨其仇人的恶魔的过程令人深思。本文在全面分析齐林沃斯悲惨命运基础上,指出它的悲剧不但与人之尊严被践踏有关,更与爱的匮乏有紧密联系,同时还与作家本人的宗教信仰及其思想局限性密切相关。齐林沃斯是一个清教徒,清教主义的传统思想严重地影响了他的思想和生活,还有他本身的原因,造就出了这样的一个自私、自卑且疯狂的可怜人。本文主要围绕齐林沃斯这一人物的命运展开分析,以及他悲惨命运的结果对后人的影响。
关键词:红字; 清教主义; 齐林沃斯;命运; 反思




1.    Introduction
    The scarletletter was the first novel of Nathaniel Hawthorne, after the book came out in1850, Hawthorne became famous overnight become was recognized as one of themost important writers. Hawthorne also put his "Romance" is called"psychological romance", which shows his attention to psychologicaldescription. The reason for his heavy psychological description, on the onehand, although by the influence of age and religion, the spirit and soul ofconfused that soul since there is good and evil, love and hatred and evil, theyshould be revealed, to punish, awarded anti hate and love; but on the otherhand, behave in eventually the psychological basis, such as psychologicalmining, characters can only stay in the appearance, must appear to besuperficial.
"Thescarlet letter" its enduring charm is that it not only mercilesslycastigates the Puritan regulations of human trampling, more important is theaffirmation of the goodness of human nature. Research aimed at through theanalysis of the main characters in the novel, thus further elaborates theauthor's main article Connotation -- people in the heart of the long livingalone and extremely fragile, or desire to expand and extreme behavior orpersonality repression of reality at a loss as to what to do. In order to showin the suppression of Puritanism, the distortion of human nature, and the Selfrepression, and then elaborates the root of the hero the constrained anddistorted soul. Through the description of the emotional entanglement betweenDimmesdale, Hester, Chillingworth, to show the love between Hester andDimmesdale and Chillingworth's revenge. And from the development of the storyexplores human significance, show the scarlet letter on the character of thedeep psychological and personality description, sends out the charm.
2.    Literature Review
    Hawthorne wasone of the greatest American novelists in the first half of nineteenth Century.The representative works are: short stories of the ancient house moss ",the story of retell it set, novel" the scarlet letter "," withseven spire loft ", the Blithedale Romance", the marble portrait"and so on. These are rare classics in world literature history. Describesthe dark side of the society and the nature of human being is a prominentcharacteristic of Hawthorne's works, which is about Calvinism people"original sin" and "inner depravity" theory of influenceare inseparable. Hawthorne is the pioneer of psychological novel, good atanalyzing people's heart "". He focuses on the moral virtues andvices, and stands by good deeds and Self repentance to wash away sin,purification of the mind to be saved. And the scarlet letter is hismasterpiece, the scarlet letter of a profound analysis of the Hester,Chillingworth, Dimmesdale three hero's inner world, and tells the story of thethree heroines how to face his crimes, how to deal with, Hawthorne writes darkbut not completely, he in exposing social evils and people's deep-rooted badhabits at the same time, many kind of hero placed great sympathy. The darknessof Hawthorne makes the dawn of the dark, even more brightly. Hawthorne made agreat contribution to the development of American literature. Hs influenceHenry James, Faulkner and Malamud. Hawthorne's works are rich in imaginationand rigorous in structure. He in addition to psychological analysis anddescription, also used symbolism. His idea of a delicate image, add a piece ofromantic color, deepen the implication. But there is no lack of mystery in hiswork.
2.1  Definition of Puritanism
Puritanism was in the late 16th century within the Church ofEngland was a religious reform. Puritanism not only conforms to the New Englandestablished the particular history, and always reflects the life of a way oflife. Hugh just to follow the teachings from the Puritan Calvinists 1619 Synodof DORT meeting formulated five creed: 1) unconditional election, God did notlet the people in the crime of destruction, but in before the creation of theworld to have chosen a group of people to travel to save; 2) limited atonementof Christ's death for a specific number of voters died; 3) total depravity:since Adam ate the good and evil, the whole human degenerated; 4) Can’t resistthe grace of the Holy Spirit in the sinner heart operation, has been to hisrepentance; 5) of the saints stick: saints are God has chosen, no matter howthey regress, always in God's inspiration.
Puritanism is a concept of faith, but also an ethical conceptof value. Extension of the Puritan Ethics is the value of the Puritan belief inthe real life, mainly for piety, honesty, frugality, diligent, abstinence and Selfperfection. These beliefs play a very important role in the real life ofAmericans. The pilgrims were initially positive and active. They rebelledagainst the Roman papal despotism, against the culture of social corruption,pay attention to rational, praised the ideal, prohibiting desire; they alwaysmaintain a rigorous and restrained, exclusion anything that might cause to thecorruption of morals behavior. But the Puritans pursued strict moral dogma,promote abstinence, condemned the pursuit of earthly delights, the religiousview of narrow side and tolerance have also begun to emerge. Originally muchoppression Puritanism began to persecute those who hold their heretical beliefsof people.
2.2 Relative Theories2.2.1Carl Jung's Personality Theory
The psychological world is a world of more abundant thanmaterial. Psychological analysis of masters Jung in deals with"Imagine" or "delusion" psychological phenomenon, said:"there is no ` realistic 'thought can not at any time be ` unrealistic'thought aside, which shows the influence more the former than the latter. Theincredible impact of the illusory concept is more dangerous than thematerial." (Jung, 1987: 246) Chillingworth’s revenge show out a rich,powerful and terrible spiritual world in TheSecret Letter .In a sense, his malice is not so much a personal hatred ofthe young man in their lives, but rather an angry vent of hope for a betterhome life. His heart was burning with jealousy and vengeance. This anger andrevenge itself shows the power of the devil. Chillingworth's anger deep andstrong, almost drove him mad. This kind of emotion is terrible in his mind.Because he has never been particularly have mercy, he easily will his wounded Selflove become to replace his love hate.
2.2.2Alfred Adler Inferiority Complex
Inferioritycomplex is proposed by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler Adler said: "aperson's physical defects, or as a teenager wounded, will inevitably produce asense of inferiority, and accumulation of haunting inferiority complex".(Adler, 2006) in the scarlet letter, Chillingworth "person of shortstature, wrinkles, age is not old" and "one shoulder obvious thananother shoulder." Chillingworth is a typical malformation of the uglyman. Freak are growing up in someone else's strange eyes, loaded with more painthan the ordinary people: the than others more lonely heart a strong sense ofinferiority. Adler thought that everyone has a sense of inferiority, but thedegree of inferiority is different. Inferiority in the superficial sense,through the comparison with others, a kind of Self denial.
Fromthe deep sense, it is a kind of ability to panic, a survival unsafe sense of afear of being abandoned by fear, so Adler the inferiority complex is furtherdefined as said the a person in the face the problem at a loss of performanceChillingworth yourself "from the quack plunging to the ground up is adeformity of the monster", "lonely, lonely, without a shred of familywarm" the apathy of human face, he has a strong at a loss, he has beendown in the dumps, which is the external manifestation of his deep inferioritycomplex stagnation. "The higher the accumulation of the inferioritycomplex, the better the psychological (is better than the superiority of theothers)." Only by constantly enterprising and constantly repeat thesatisfaction of the experience, to get rid of the mental set, to dilute thesense of inferiority caused by the tension and anxiety
2.2.3Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Chillingworthis a mad persecution without mercy, while Dimmesdale have become his victim.The relationship between them can be seen as a psychological analysis of thecase. In our view, all this arises from the lack of love and loss Chillingworthneeds. Maslow's theory of motivation in the basic needs of the human summarizedas physiological needs, security needs, love needs and other needs pointed out:"A person setbacks in any kind of basic needs, and nothing can be justlyAs some of us called `patient 'is seen as a sick person is very similar people.Such people and lack of vitamins and inorganic. Who says love better than alack of vitamin deficiency important? A healthy person's motivation is mainlydue to him on the need to develop and realize his potential strength of themost abundant and ability (Maslow, 2006). "
So,we can say, Chillingworth is a sick person. The reason is "sick"because due to psychological structure away from the basic structure of thehuman intellect. In normal view, Quest Chillingworth how much this heart ishard and boring! It is this sensibility can’t normal people are aware, thisdirty impossible, actually Chillingworth stirring to complete. This is not byKant said of superhuman intellect done God's mind, but by normal people areaware of "impossible" Blindness carried out. Before the end of thiscaused great suffering punishment, is Chillingworth force Dimmesdale into deepremorse, confusion Dimmesdale seem to have lost track of all the introductionof help and strength and caught in the mud disappointed.
3.    Chillingworth’s Destiny
Hisearly life dedicated to the academic, then half plunged into retaliation, hewas of an unknown as one specializes in academic wise, though ugly buteasy-going attitude. He just wants to have a warm home, he do everything theycan to make themselves better in order to narrow the distance betweenthemselves and the beautiful wife, but all good heist betrayal fantasies withnaught in his robbed He survived two years after the return, coinciding withhis wife because of adultery and public display of the scene, which heundoubtedly thunderbolt. After a back and forth, after several hardships, Chillingworthfate tease, the gap between reality and hope, when the dream they want to havea warm family was ruthlessly crushed, he chose a terrible path of revenge, butalso began his Fallen to the destruction process: in prison Chillingworth firstappeared in front of Jewel Heister asked to identify his father's name and thenvowed to find the Heister adulterer, with doctors in Chillingworth Identitylived in Boston for several years, and his face began to have a "hideousevil" expression, vengeance has led him to become just like the devil;
3. 1 TheTragic Destiny
Happy lifedisillusioned in the novel, Chillingworth could stay in the original home tocontinue his career, but he's hoping to Hester better life before deciding tomove to Massachusetts home, did not expect his wife to first place, but theirsea and land in the South have repeated insurance, the nonreligious people tothe imprisonment for a long time; and finally was printed a Anren toMassachusetts for ransom when celecoxib, himself in unfrequented places afterthe catastrophe, the illusion that you will be in this place with his wife andhave a happy life, and all this with the Shanghai site in the scaffold foradultery. The crime accepted the punishment shattered, he had loved his wifedid not worry when he did not pray without hearing a word about, round theclock for his safe return, but not for him to a wife should obey the duty, thisis more is a violation of his love for his insults! He was so eager to have awarm home, he know oneself is incompatible with the beautiful heist, but he isdoing his best to close the distance between Hester, did not expect was unableto get the ordinary love.
3. 2The Internal Factors
Chillingworth have such a fate, is the end result of differentcauses:ugly、 his wife's infidelity, the internal and externalreasons are the cause of his tragic fate. The fategives us different roles, it is better to try your best than to blame god andman. The smallest role can turn into the hero. There'sno way to reverse but to cry tearfully in despair about the miserable destiny.
3.2.1Congenital Defects of Body
In fact, careful retrospect Chillingworth's life although hecongenital malformation of short stature is ugly, but he had to Hester said:"my whole life is formed by the sincerity, diligence, thinking, quietyears, I faithfully in those years to improve my knowledge and also faithfullyto promote human well-being while the latter is just before a incidental from,whose life is less than my life so calm so pure and Hester also confirmed thatwhat he said is true. He is a man of learning and scholarship, and a man who isworthy of praise and praise, he once said:”My heart was a habitationlarge enough for many guests, but lonely and chill, and without a householdfire.”   
3.2.2 Eccentric Personality
Congenital defects of the body let him to have a normal stateof mind of the ordinary people have, resulting in his eccentric personality,not good at communicating with people, look ugly in his own fundamental withShanghai Lancaster, due to their own inferiority from dare not face up to theirown, feel more his grievance Hester, right from the start because ofChillingworth and Self abased psychology caused him Between Hester andinsurmountable gap and it is this kind of psychological he will all mindbetting and academic he wants Hester to see himself in another excellent, tallImage Day focus on academic, reticent to his dour personality. Start is ademon, he had to Hester said: "my whole life is formed by the sincerity,diligence, thinking, quiet years, I faithfully in those years to improve my knowledgeand also faithfully to promote human well-being while the latter is just beforea incidental from, whose life is less than my life so calm so pure.
3. 3External Factors3.3.1 Love Which Can’tbe Understood
    Another reason for the Chillingworth's tragicfate Mo too his love is not wife understanding both of Hester and pearl, forHester Chillingworth knows his ugly appearance with no enthusiasm is bold andunrestrained heist, he mistakenly thought as long as he concentrated onstudying and academic accomplishments and to close with the distance betweenHester to win more Hester's favor, but he forgot the true love is notnecessarily a good. It needs two people sympathetic, which from on the otherhand also showed Chillingworth longing for love for family hope but in the eyesof Hester is imprisoned her cage. Is so-called “Love me, love my dog” or pigson he has a sense of intimacy, will naturally and with the glow of love andHester did not agree, she knew I had betrayed her husband, she is afraid of Chillingworthso angry to Pearl, novel Chillingworth for diagnosis and treatment of Pearlruthless rejected Such as “What should ail me, to harmthis misbegotten and miserable babe?”(Hawthorne, 1994) Sadly life is not howyou really heinous, but when you're a sincere heart was unwarranted suspicion,this is the cause of the most heartbreaking!
3.3.2Hester’s Betrayal
AlthoughChillingworth knows between him and the combination is not natural, thecombination between them is a "misunderstanding", because both ofthem are the old and young, deformity and beautiful, diligent and good ideasand social system can inhibit the soul, but he are not willing to return tolive in. After winning his wife love hopes, Chillingworth was from the bottomof my heart hate the effortless to get his wife love of young people. In asense, his malice is not so much a personal hatred of the young man in theirlives, but rather an angry vent of hope for a better home life. His heart wasburning with jealousy and vengeance. This anger and revenge itself shows thepower of the devil. Chillingworth's anger deep and strong, almost drove himmad. This kind of emotion is terrible in his mind. Because he has never beenparticularly have mercy, he easily will his wounded Self love become to replacehis love hate
4. The Reflection
Chillingworth is not justbeen rejected in love, he also carries a betrayal of his wife's enormous shame,in his pursuit and Transcendence of the road wrack. All of these will aggravatehis inmost feelings of inferiority and the depth of his inferiority will makehis anger over the fire burn more fiercely. He has a strong intelligence, hisevil accomplice. His great intelligence and a huge amount of wealth, had tomake his desire for unlimited expansion; strong psychology of his men, in thecultural pattern of the hero and the beauty are adding fuel to the flames, sothat his love of the road is full of hardships, finally lost self. A scholar’s heartshould be quiet and peaceful, full of feeling of life's joy. However, his mindis full of restlessness of the ominous, under distorted hatred abruptly adetested, lonely life
4.1 The correct view of yourself
He was just eager to have a warmhome, which in his view Hester is his best choice, but he was too self-esteemthat he felt himself old, gloomy, deformity, good enough for the young andbeautiful Hester,(“old as I was, and sombre as I was, and misshapen as I was-that the simple bliss, which is scattered far and wide, for all mankind togather up, might yet be mine”)You are not brave enough to face yourself, face their ownproblems, what is the reason that Hester accept him? Imagine yourself to feelterrible about their appearance, not to mention other people how to treat theirown!
    Before the start he has a correct view tohimself. He would not have such a gloomy character from the point of view ofsome of his accomplishments, he was a scholar worthy of our respect, not thesame good looks, he can still win the masses admiration, as paralyzed Hawking,could not walk, his appearance will make people feel horror, but the samethrough their own efforts to become a great man, Chillingworth have abundantexperience naturally talented, only afraid to face their own, this is thetragedy of his fate crucial point
4.2 The Coverage to Face theReality
Hawthorne, the human mind is sacrosanct, only God has theright to punish those who did evil soul, and Chillingworth retaliation fortheir own selfish desires, ruthlessly desecrated the sanctity of the humanheart. He has been likened to steal the human soul Satan, hatred makes him thefirst story of evil. He suffered the injury, he could have chosen to forgive,but he was paranoid that everything is a kind of dark necessity. In fact, healso destroyed an evil man, if he can have the courage to accept the reality,although Hester had betrayed him, but he also did not want to Hester's love, inthat case why not choose to let go Choose Blessing? He himself has said:"We both make each other had been wronged, I first wronged you, I takeyour budding youth with my decay incorrectly, unnaturally grafted together toruin you." Now that we have Hester clearly know that some ruinedhappiness, why not choose tolerance, keeps saying he loves himself. but he hadtoo narrow selfish, he just put himself Hester seen personal items, a can formpart of the life he wanted, since Hester has to make a choice to start theirown new life, if he could choose blessing, he will not have died afterDimmesdale himself suddenly died, did not learn to love life nor did it givelove. If you do not regret the pursuit of these three men living today,Chillingworth, Hester was even betrayal, with his knowledge accomplishment,perhaps still not evil heart, to destroy a person's life as a happy familymisfortune after He even give them to send good wishes; while Hester andDimmesdale might to be a happy couple, live a happy family life. But these arejust wonderful assumptions, are good fantasy。
4.3 The Result of Revenge
    Chillingworth is atragic figure, his end is a person alone left this world. His life has neverbeen in love, he did not go to love, and no one loves him. After he hadbetrayed her with his wife, he had a revenge on his wife's lover. Because ofthe influence of social and religious, he became unable to forgive others fortheir mistakes, and not to consider the reasons for the development of things,in his dictionary is not the only punishment of the word. But the result of thepunishment is that his soul left his body with Martin May Rosdale's death. Henever knew that in the tolerance of others at the same time, but also intolerance. From Chillingworth who we learned people should learn to betolerant.
Hawthorne's the pathetic condition of Chillingworth turned ablind eye: spiritual emptiness and loneliness, to Hester's love and hope, ofbeautiful hopes the despair of their own legitimate rights and interests andthe maintenance, and in the ordinary seems natural to rival the resentment.Hawthorne ignore the other aspects of the person deprived of many of his normalhuman rights and human needs; Hawthorne saw only a little: Chillingworthagainst the others in the hearts and souls of the behavior is unforgivable.This alone, in Hawthorne's view, is enough to overthrow any other reason. It ishis narrow religious view had a ugly and gloomy unforgivable Chillingworth.Hawthorne wants to inquire about a sin of Self redemption. In "the scarletletter" Chillingworth both dual personality characteristics of thePuritans of good and evil. This dual source in the Bible about human nature ofthe definition. Chillingworth from sinister revenge to the course of thegenerosity of donors that, in spirit conflict, "God" good willovercome "the devil" evil human self-help way is to do what is good
4.4 The Reflection of Modern Marriage
He just the Hester seen astheir personal belongings, a composition of a part of the life he wanted, sinceHester has made a choice to begin their new life, if he can choose to bless, hedid not as in after the death of Dimmesdale himself suddenly died, life no loveto learn, also did not give love. If the personal life today, Chillingworth forturning against us even been Hester, to his knowledge and culture may not asevil heart, the destroy a person's happy life as family misfortune not regretpursuit. He'll even give them send best wishes; and Hester and Dimmesdale maybecome a happy couple, have a happy home life. But all of these are just fineassumptions,
5. Conclusion
Novelleading tendency is clear: sure Hester and Dimmesdale by the love, advocatesmaintaining power of the human pursuit of love, against the Calvinism of thecruel law, accused of Chillingworth malicious revenge. At the same time, theauthor thinks of Hester and Dimmesdale did make committing the crime shall bepunished; rehabilitation way is humiliation, to do good deeds, and devotion tothe penitent Christian culture in the society, especially in Puritan rule ofone small colony, the society is to the survival of the individual and thedevelopment foundation. In the eyes of Hawthorne, both of them do against thehe himself was convinced that Christian creeds and dogmas, is a sinner; butthey suffer in silence Christian extreme and paranoid, goodness and self-sacrificeto save himself and everyone is a saint. Visible, Hawthorne Christianfundamentalists in favor of Christian goodness side, but he strongly opposedChristian extreme paranoia and harsh. Hawthorne believes that the evil is the natureof human, and the birth of the fall is the root of all social evils. The novelexposes the evil of human external, inner evil crimes legal and moral offence,and stressed that the exact cause of the crime between love and hate in closecontact, both in the development to the extreme, is highly related andinterlinked. The novel has always been through Hawthorne's understanding of thecrime: guilty people, have the courage to confess and recognize the crime, canbe completely cleared of the charges, to obtain salvation. Hawthorne in thenovel alert to the world should be aware of "evil" destructive powerand will lead to disastrous consequences, calling for love and goodness ofinfinite world, which in our present age still has positive significance.
Chillingworthin the heart of love has been transformed into a terrible hatred extreme, inthe most virulent form, to elaborate and accurate target of revenge. But in thelast the legacy of pearl. The author arranges such an outcome to besignificant, it leaves the reader a space of infinite thinking. Can’t help butdoubt in mind heavy in this last will and Testament, Chillingworth is how tothink? Is what idea that drove him to set up such a double dealing with legacy?A little selfish to said, he need not do so. If you want to do good, he can putthe property to the church or to help other poor people, without leaving therival's daughter. This move Chillingworth dying contains a certain degree ofrepentance, or a manifestation of others in return

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